Release Information

The new ports and routing changes for each recent release of the distance tables.

Tables updated to Admiralty Notices to Mariners 2021 Week 29

Notable areas of Change

Bight of Benin - Improvement in routing around the Bight of Benin and the Western African Coast

UN/LOCODE - Improvement in LOCODE implementation for European ports, later rolling out to the remaining continents.

Port approaches reviewed

Minor changes have been made to approaches to the following ports, prompted by review or due to the release of updated charts or other information in Notices to Mariners; distances to/from these ports may have changed.

  • Ascension Island
  • Auckland
  • Bukpyung
  • ChanJiang Kou
  • Coega
  • Dar es Salaam
  • Dutch Harbour
  • Geralton
  • Gerogetown, Guyana
  • Guayaquil
  • Holmsund
  • Honolulu
  • Horta
  • Jing Jiang
  • Kushiro
  • Male
  • Marcus Hook
  • Marsden Point
  • Matsuura
  • Mina Sayut
  • Mo-I-Rana
  • Mombassa
  • Montevideo
  • Pipavav
  • Pohang
  • Prince Rupert
  • Ras al Khair
  • Ruwais
  • Sikka
  • St Croix
  • Sydney
  • Tsukumi
  • Whangerei Manta
  • Zhapu

Other sea areas reviewed

Minor changes have been made to the route network in the following sea areas, either prompted by review or due to the release of updated charts or other information in Notices to Mariners; distances for routes transiting these areas may have changed by a small amount.

  • Approach to Tianjin Gang
  • Bering Strait
  • Coast of Norway
  • German Bight
  • Newfoundland
  • North Sea
  • West coast of India
  • Yellow Sea
Port Name Country Port Code UNCTAD Position
Aalborg Gronlandshavn
Denmark DK0167 DKAAL 57° 2.935' N, 10° 3.321' E
Aalborg Osthavn
Denmark DK0166 DKAAL 57° 3.361' N, 10° 3.241' E
Aalborg Portland
Denmark DK0165 DKAAL 57° 3.587' N, 9° 57.846' E
Abadan
Iran IR0001 IRABD 30° 20.146' N, 48° 16.283' E
Abo FPSO
Nigeria NG0001 ABOFPSO 5° 42.000' N, 4° 28.000' E
Aboshi
Japan JP0002 JPABO 34° 46.417' N, 134° 36.364' E
Abu Zenima
Egypt EG0004 EGAZA 29° 2.450' N, 33° 7.000' E
Ad Duqm
Oman OM0037 OMDQM 19° 40.700' N, 57° 43.200' E
Adang Bay - Coal Anchorage
Indonesia ID0450 IDADB 1° 43.000' S, 116° 38.000' E
Adelaide - Bulk Loading Wharf
Australia AU0402 AUADL 34° 49.600' S, 138° 30.500' E
Adelaide - Container Terminal
Australia AU0439 AUADL 34° 46.100' S, 138° 29.400' E
Aden Container Terminal
Yemen YE0036 YEADE 12° 48.200' N, 44° 59.800' E
ADM Growmark - Mississippi
United States US0927 USAMD 29° 56.450' N, 90° 18.829' W
Aghios Nikolaos, (Keos Is.), Greece
Greece GR0007 GRKEA 37° 39.708' N, 24° 18.889' E
Ain Sukhna - North Port - Sokhna Port
Egypt EG0114 EGAIS 29° 38.800' N, 32° 21.400' E
Aksa Electric Terminal
Cyprus CY0039 CYKAL 35° 19.300' N, 33° 59.700' E
Akyab
Aliases: Sittwe
Myanmar MM0001 MMAKY 20° 8.383' N, 92° 54.323' E
Aland
Aliases: Mariehamn
Finland FI0004 FIMHQ 60° 5.700' N, 19° 55.470' E
Alba, Bahrain
Bahrain BH0001 BHBAH 26° 11.300' N, 50° 41.300' E
Albert Dock; Kingston upon Hull; Humber River
United Kingdom GB0228 GBHUL 53° 44.050' N, 0° 20.400' W
Alexandra Dock - Kingston Upon Hull
United Kingdom GB0618 GBHUL 53° 44.727' N, 0° 17.673' W
Alumar
Brazil BR0009 BRALU 2° 40.627' S, 44° 21.745' W
Ancon
Peru PE0037 PEANC 11° 46.420' S, 77° 11.000' W
An-Ping
Taiwan TW0001 TWAPG 22° 58.146' N, 120° 9.028' E
Antifer
France FR0007 FRCIF 49° 39.300' N, 0° 7.900' E
Antwerp - Deurganckdok
Belgium BE0028 BEANR 51° 17.300' N, 4° 15.400' E
Antwerp - Europa Container Terminal
Belgium BE0027 BEANR 51° 20.200' N, 4° 16.400' E
Antwerp - Noordzee Container Terminal
Belgium BE0026 BEANR 51° 21.020' N, 4° 15.450' E
Antwerp - Van Cauwelaertsluis Locks
Belgium BE0030 BEANR 51° 17.028' N, 4° 19.300' E
Antwerp - Waaslandkanaal
Belgium BE0029 BEANR 51° 16.500' N, 4° 13.900' E
Aqaba Container Terminal
Jordan JO0004 JOAQJ 29° 28.100' N, 34° 58.450' E
Baglan Bay
United Kingdom GB0641 GBAGA 51° 37.260' N, 3° 50.460' W
Barbados
Aliases: Black Rock Tanker Terminal, Bridgetown, Needham's Point Tanker Tmnl, Oistins Bay Tanker Terminal, Spring Garden Tanker Terminal
Barbados CB0002 BBBGI 13° 6.000' N, 59° 38.000' W
Barbados - Container Terminal
Barbados CB0012 BBBGI 13° 6.350' N, 59° 37.850' W
Barcelona Container Terminal
Spain ES0206 ESBCN 41° 21.200' N, 2° 10.350' E
Barcelona LNG Terminal
Spain ES0200 ESBCN 41° 20.550' N, 2° 9.800' E
Barry - No.2 Dock
United Kingdom GB0763 GBBAD 51° 24.112' N, 3° 15.249' W
Bilbao - LNG Terminal
Aliases: Ciervana
Spain ES0168 ESBIO 43° 21.900' N, 3° 5.700' W
Brittanniehaven
Netherlands NL0102 NLEUR 51° 53.689' N, 4° 14.502' E
Butinge Marine Terminal
Lithuania XR0003 LTBOT 56° 2.700' N, 20° 57.700' E
Campo Boe Oil Terminal
Italy IT0221 ITVAD 44° 16.700' N, 8° 27.700' E
Cartagena LNG Terminal, Spain
Spain ES0201 ESCAR 37° 34.400' N, 0° 57.900' W
Cartagena, Spain - South Port
Spain ES0211 ESCAR 37° 33.789' N, 0° 58.238' W
Cartagena, Spain - Terminal de Cruceros
Spain ES0210 ESCAR 37° 35.687' N, 0° 58.886' W
Castellamare de Stabia
Italy IT0039 ITCAS 40° 41.782' N, 14° 28.399' E
Castellon de la Plana - CBM Berth
Spain ES0205 ESCAS 39° 56.160' N, 0° 3.300' E
Castellon de la Plana - North Port
Spain ES0202 ESCAS 39° 58.000' N, 0° 1.540' E
Castellon de la Plana - South Port
Spain ES0203 ESCAS 39° 57.250' N, 0° 1.100' E
CEPSA SBM
Spain ES0170 ESSRQ 36° 9.900' N, 5° 24.900' W
CEPSA Terminal
Spain ES0169 ESSRQ 36° 10.500' N, 5° 23.900' W
Clarence Wharf;Tees River
United Kingdom GB0509 GBMID 54° 34.900' N, 1° 12.800' W
Cloghan Point
Aliases: Whitehead
United Kingdom GB0103 GBCGP 54° 44.100' N, 5° 41.700' W
Copenhagen - Provestens Oil Pier
Denmark DK0164 DKCPH 55° 41.130' N, 12° 38.576' E
Devonport, U.K.
Aliases: Yonderberry Point
United Kingdom GB0124 GBDVP 50° 22.958' N, 4° 11.507' W
Dragon LNG Terminal
United Kingdom GB0753 GBPED 51° 41.960' N, 4° 59.860' W
Dunkerque - West - Container Terminal
Aliases: Dunkirk - West - Container Terminal, Dunkirk West - Container Terminal, Dunkerque West - Container Terminal, Dunkirk Container Terminal, Dunkerque Container Terminal
France FR0281 FRDKK 51° 0.700' N, 2° 10.600' E
Dunkerque - West - Flanders Fuel Wharf
Aliases: Gravelines VLCC Terminal, Dunkirk - West - Flanders Fuel Wharf, Dunkerque West - Flanders Fuel Wharf, Dunkirk West - Flanders Fuel Wharf, Flanders Fuel Wharf, Flandres Fuel Wharf
France FR0282 FRDKK 51° 1.900' N, 2° 9.500' E
Dunkerque - West - LNG Terminal
Aliases: Dunkirk - West - LNG Terminal, Dunkirk West - LNG Terminal, Dunkerque West - LNG Terminal, Dunkerque LNG Terminal, Dunkirk LNG Terminal
France FR0299 FRDKK 51° 2.254' N, 2° 11.225' E
Egina Terminal
Nigeria NG0118 3° 3.018' N, 6° 41.838' E
Europoort - E.C.T. Delta Terminal
Netherlands NL0077 NLEUR 51° 57.600' N, 4° 2.200' E
Europoort - Maasvlaakte LNG Terminal
Netherlands NL0099 NLEUR 51° 58.300' N, 4° 4.620' E
Europoort - Maasvlakte 2
Netherlands NL0101 NLEUR 51° 57.600' N, 4° 0.000' E
Europoort - Maasvlakte Oil Terminal
Aliases: Maasvlakte
Netherlands NL0076 NLEUR 51° 58.000' N, 4° 4.300' E
Europoort - Mississippihaven EMO
Netherlands NL0079 NLEUR 51° 56.100' N, 4° 3.000' E
Europoort - Shell Oil Terminal
Netherlands NL0075 NLEUR 51° 57.350' N, 4° 8.700' E
Europoort - VOPAK Oil Terminal
Netherlands NL0078 NLEUR 51° 55.400' N, 4° 12.400' E
Everingen
Netherlands NL0096 NLANK 51° 27.600' N, 3° 41.300' E
Excelerate LNG Terminal - Teesport
United Kingdom GB0755 GBTEE 54° 36.695' N, 1° 9.320' W
Faborg
Aliases: Faaborg
Denmark DK0030 DKFAA 55° 5.500' N, 10° 14.200' E
Falconara - API Sea Berth
Italy IT0268 ITFAL 43° 44.700' N, 13° 33.000' E
Fazendinha Anchorage
Brazil BR0303 0° 6.001' S, 51° 8.402' W
Fos - Darse 1
France FR0244 FRFOS 43° 25.700' N, 4° 52.100' E
Fos - Darse 2
France FR0246 FRFOS 43° 25.400' N, 4° 49.900' E
Fos - Darse 3
France FR0247 FRFOS 43° 23.750' N, 4° 50.900' E
Fos - Darse Sud
France FR0243 FRFOS 43° 25.600' N, 4° 53.500' E
Fos - LNG Terminal
France FR0245 FRFOS 43° 27.000' N, 4° 51.300' E
Fos - Petroleum Wharf 4
Aliases: Fos - Cavaou LNG Terminal
France FR0248 FRFOS 43° 24.800' N, 4° 53.850' E
Genoa - Multedo Oil Terminal
Italy IT0106 ITGOA 44° 25.179' N, 8° 49.929' E
Genoa - Multedo SBM's
Italy IT0267 ITGOA 44° 23.980' N, 8° 49.007' E
Genoa - Voltri Container Terminal
Italy IT0266 ITGOA 44° 25.000' N, 8° 47.000' E
Gijon -Terminal Grandes Liquidos
Spain ES0213 ESGIJ 43° 34.581' N, 5° 41.352' W
Golfo Aranci
Italy IT0228 ITGAI 40° 59.071' N, 9° 36.916' E
Grange Docks
United Kingdom GB0770 GBGGU 56° 1.607' N, 3° 41.774' W
Grytviken
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands FG0001 GSGRV 54° 16.892' S, 36° 30.374' W
Guldborg
Denmark DK0040 DKGDB 54° 52.300' N, 11° 44.925' E
Havre
Aliases: Le Havre
France FR0090 FRLEH 49° 28.300' N, 0° 9.600' E
Hook of Holland
Aliases: Hoek van Holland
Netherlands NL0029 NLHVH 51° 58.364' N, 4° 7.603' E
Howden
United Kingdom GB0222 GBHWD 53° 43.816' N, 0° 51.017' W
Humber International Terminal
United Kingdom GB0615 GBIMM 53° 38.550' N, 0° 11.800' W
Humber Sea Terminal
Aliases: North Killingholme
United Kingdom GB0613 GBHMR 53° 40.150' N, 0° 13.850' W
Huseoy
Norway NO0152 NOVAL 59° 14.400' N, 10° 28.250' E
Immingham Bulk Terminal
United Kingdom GB0616 GBIMM 53° 38.350' N, 0° 11.550' W
Immingham Gas Terminal
United Kingdom GB0614 GBIMM 53° 38.800' N, 0° 12.100' W
Immingham Oil Terminal
Aliases: Humber River
United Kingdom GB0617 GBIMM 53° 37.950' N, 0° 9.850' W
Isla Verde
Spain ES0198 ESALG 36° 7.500' N, 5° 25.200' W
Kiel Canal - Baltic Entrance - Holtenau
Germany CP2310 DECKL 54° 21.886' N, 10° 8.804' E
Kiel Canal - North Sea Entrance - Brunsbuttel
Germany CP2300 DECKL 53° 52.900' N, 9° 8.000' E
King George and QE Dock - Kingston Upon Hull
Aliases: Hull
United Kingdom GB0619 GBHUL 53° 44.595' N, 0° 15.906' W
King George V Dock - Glasgow
United Kingdom GB0771 GBGLW 55° 52.137' N, 4° 21.148' W
Klaipeda LNG Terminal
Lithuania LT0004 LTKLJ 55° 39.871' N, 21° 8.344' E
Kohlfleethafen
Germany DE0125 DEHAM 53° 32.320' N, 9° 52.620' E
Korsor - N bound
Denmark CP2400 DKKRR 55° 21.000' N, 11° 2.400' E
Korsor - Routing
Denmark CP2405 DKKRR 55° 21.000' N, 11° 2.100' E
Korsor - S bound
Denmark CP2410 DKKRR 55° 21.000' N, 11° 1.800' E
La Salinetas
Aliases: Las Palmas SPM
Spain YI0006 ESSAT 27° 58.280' N, 15° 22.725' W
La Spezia Container Terminal
Italy IT0271 ITSPE 44° 6.400' N, 9° 50.550' E
La Spezia LNG Terminal
Italy IT0270 ITSPE 44° 4.600' N, 9° 50.170' E
Le Havre Container Terminal
France FR0284 FRLEH 49° 27.400' N, 0° 9.600' E
Le Trait
France FR0280 FRLTT 49° 28.595' N, 0° 48.181' E
Leixoes SBM
Portugal PT0043 PTLEI 41° 12.000' N, 8° 45.400' W
Lejes
Aliases: Lajes do Pico
Portugal PT0045 PTLDP 38° 23.469' N, 28° 15.983' W
Lindisfarne
Aliases: Holy Island
United Kingdom GB0760 GBHYI 55° 39.931' N, 1° 47.906' W
Liquigaz Bataan Terminal
Philippines PH0266 Bataan LPG Terminal 14° 25.519' N, 120° 34.318' E
Livorno LNG Terminal
Italy IT0276 ITLIV 43° 38.000' N, 9° 58.300' E
Loch Carnan
United Kingdom GB0640 GBLCC 57° 22.060' N, 7° 16.420' W
London Gateway Container Port
United Kingdom GB0756 GBLGP 51° 30.150' N, 0° 30.000' E
Lowestoft Hamilton Dock
United Kingdom GB0767 GBLOW 52° 28.544' N, 1° 45.546' E
Lowestoft Waveney Dock
United Kingdom GB0766 GBLOW 52° 28.478' N, 1° 45.353' E
Maaloy
Norway NO0079 NOMAY 61° 56.100' N, 5° 7.500' E
Middelfart
Denmark DK0179 DKMID 55° 30.447' N, 9° 44.384' E
Milgravis
Latvia LV0009 LVRIX 57° 1.421' N, 24° 7.189' E
Montoir Gas Terminal - Loire River
France FR0134 FRMTX 47° 17.900' N, 2° 8.400' W
Montoir Port - Loire River
France FR0251 FRMTX 47° 17.670' N, 2° 9.000' W
Mugardos LNG Terminal
Spain ES0197 ESFRO 43° 27.800' N, 8° 13.930' W
Nigg Oil Terminal
United Kingdom GB0347 GBNGG 57° 41.500' N, 4° 2.600' W
Nordjyllandsvaerkets
Denmark DK0233 DKVSV 57° 4.000' N, 10° 2.000' E
Norsea Oil Terminal
Aliases: Seal Sands
United Kingdom GB0622 GBTEE 54° 37.250' N, 1° 9.320' W
North Tees Terminal
United Kingdom GB0621 GBTEE 54° 35.850' N, 1° 10.500' W
Ocean Tanker Berth - River Tyne
United Kingdom GB0625 GBTYN 54° 59.250' N, 1° 28.000' W
Phillips Inset Dock - Tees River
Aliases: North Tees Jetty
United Kingdom GB0624 GBTEE 54° 37.400' N, 1° 9.950' W
Pirita Sadam
Estonia EE0034 EEPIR 59° 28.192' N, 24° 49.165' E
Port du Verdon
France FR0239 FRLVE 45° 32.300' N, 1° 2.300' W
Port Polnocny
Poland PL0024 PLGDN 54° 23.960' N, 18° 43.150' E
Porto Canale - Container Terminal
Italy IT0272 ITCAG 39° 12.950' N, 9° 4.100' E
Porto Levante Gas Terminal
Aliases: Porto Lavante
Italy IT0234 ITPVT 45° 4.700' N, 12° 23.900' E
Posorja Container Terminal
Ecuador EC0030 ECPSJ 2° 41.489' S, 80° 14.786' W
Puerto del Rosario
Aliases: Puerto Rosario
Spain YI0012 ESFUE 28° 29.700' N, 13° 51.400' W
Quiliano Terminal
Italy IT0153 ITVAD 44° 15.036' N, 8° 28.232' E
Redcar Ore Terminal
Aliases: Redcar
United Kingdom GB0623 GBRER 54° 37.450' N, 1° 9.400' W
Risavika
Aliases: Aker Base, Tananger
Norway NO0169 NORIV 58° 55.650' N, 5° 36.000' E
Risavika LNG Terminal
Norway NO0289 NORIV 58° 55.480' N, 5° 34.600' E
Rochefort Marina (CM)
France FR0253 FRRCO 45° 56.570' N, 0° 57.420' W
Rodby
Denmark DK0116 DKROF 54° 39.100' N, 11° 20.900' E
Rosignano LNG
Italy IT0263 ITVDA 43° 21.500' N, 10° 25.000' E
Rovigo LNG Terminal
Italy IT0265 ITRVO 45° 5.500' N, 12° 35.500' E
Sagunto LNG Terminal
Spain ES0199 ESSAG 39° 38.220' N, 0° 12.960' W
Sassnitz-Mukran
Aliases: Sassnitz Sea Terminal
Germany DE0128 DESAS 54° 28.778' N, 13° 35.459' E
Scarborough, U.K.
United Kingdom GB0443 GBSCA 54° 16.896' N, 0° 23.411' W
Schulau
Germany DE0099 DECHL 53° 33.844' N, 9° 43.424' E
Shanghai
China CN0116 CNSHA 31° 15.500' N, 121° 32.600' E
Sillamae
Estonia EE0054 EESLM 59° 25.500' N, 27° 44.500' E
Sines LNG Terminal
Portugal PT0044 PTSIE 37° 56.140' N, 8° 51.450' W
Sines Terminal XXI
Portugal PT0046 PTSIE 37° 55.900' N, 8° 50.870' W
Sjursoya
Norway NO0113 NOOSL 59° 53.100' N, 10° 45.400' E
South Hook LNG Terminal
United Kingdom GB0752 GBMLF 51° 41.830' N, 5° 4.800' W
South Killingholme
United Kingdom GB0463 GBKGH 53° 39.100' N, 0° 12.300' W
St Louis du Rhone
France FR0213 FRPSL 43° 23.300' N, 4° 50.400' E
SV CPP
Vietnam VN0108 8° 22.284' N, 108° 47.470' E
SV-DN TERMINAL
Vietnam VN0107 8° 22.780' N, 108° 41.300' E
Tallinn - Vanasadam
Aliases: Tallinn
Estonia EE0032 EETLL 59° 26.800' N, 24° 46.100' E
Taranto Container Terminal
Aliases: Taranto - Evergreen Terminal, Taranto - Exterior Port, Taranto - Porto Industriale Esterno
Italy IT0279 ITTAR 40° 29.854' N, 17° 9.203' E
Tees Dock
United Kingdom GB0768 GBTEE 54° 36.153' N, 1° 9.304' W
Tees Offshore Base
United Kingdom GB0620 GBTEE 54° 35.330' N, 1° 11.300' W
The Sound(Helsingor) - N bound
Sweden CP3400 DKHLS 56° 3.400' N, 12° 39.300' E
The Sound(Helsingor) - Routing
Sweden CP0345 DKHLS 56° 3.300' N, 12° 38.900' E
The Sound(Helsingor) - S bound
Denmark CP3410 DKHLS 56° 3.200' N, 12° 38.500' E
TLH Terminal
United Kingdom GB0749 GBDWE 51° 44.800' N, 0° 53.400' E
Trieste Container Terminal - Molo VII
Italy IT0275 ITTRS 45° 37.700' N, 13° 45.700' E
Trieste Oil Terminal - S.I.O.T Terminal Punta Franco
Italy IT0274 ITTRS 45° 36.650' N, 13° 46.400' E
Tyne Bulk Terminal
Aliases: Tyne River
United Kingdom GB0627 GBTYN 54° 59.200' N, 1° 27.580' W
Tyne Car Terminal
United Kingdom GB0769 GBTYN 54° 59.144' N, 1° 27.907' W
Tyne Container Terminal
United Kingdom GB0628 GBTYN 54° 59.220' N, 1° 27.350' W
Tyne Dock
Aliases: Hebburn, North Shields, South Shields, Tynemouth
United Kingdom GB0629 GBTYN 54° 59.300' N, 1° 27.100' W
Tyne Tanker Berth
United Kingdom GB0626 GBTYN 54° 59.230' N, 1° 27.775' W
Vada
Italy IT0206 ITVDA 43° 21.167' N, 10° 26.687' E
Valencia - North Port
Spain ES0212 ESVLC 39° 27.430' N, 0° 18.124' W
Venice, Italy
Aliases: Lido, Porto di Malamocco, Porto San Leonardo
Italy IT0210 ITVCE 45° 25.950' N, 12° 18.300' E
Vila Do Porto; Santa Maria Island (Azores)
Aliases: Santa Maria Island (Azores)
Portugal AP0011 PTVDP 36° 56.186' N, 25° 9.051' W
Warkworth
United Kingdom GB0542 GBWKO 55° 20.195' N, 1° 34.719' W
Westervik
Aliases: Vastervik
Sweden SE0238 SE VVK 57° 45.650' N, 16° 39.000' E
Whitby, U.K.
United Kingdom GB0555 GBWTB 54° 29.098' N, 0° 36.740' W
Wilhelmshaven Container Terminal
Germany DE0165 DEWVN 53° 35.930' N, 8° 9.500' E
Wilhelmshaven NWO Oil Terminal
Germany DE0166 DEWVN 53° 33.500' N, 8° 10.300' E
Yarmouth, U.K.
United Kingdom GB0572 GBYMO 50° 42.366' N, 1° 30.072' W
Ymuiden
Netherlands NL0069 NLIJM 52° 28.132' N, 4° 35.270' E
Zeebrugge LNG Terminal
Belgium BE0033 BEZEE 51° 21.140' N, 3° 12.900' E

None added in this release

Port Name Country Port Code UNCTAD Position
Korisia
Greece GR0133 GRKEA 37° 39.604' N, 24° 18.844' E
Malamocco
Italy IT0088 ITVCE 45° 21.158' N, 12° 14.740' E
Offshore Lome No.19 (TA)
Togo TG0021 1° 39.000' N, 0° 24.000' W
Offshore Nacala No1. (TA)
Mozambique MZ0050 14° 29.500' S, 40° 39.400' E
Offshore South West Point No. 6 (TA)
United States US1279 28° 33.000' N, 91° 47.800' W
Sokhna
Egypt EG0079 EGAIS 29° 38.820' N, 32° 21.403' E